A health claim is any statement about a relationship between food and health. The Commission authorises different health claims provided they are based on scientific evidence and can be easily understood by consumers. See the difference in health claims interpretation in America and Europe https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_claim.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for evaluating the scientific evidence supporting health claims.
Types of Health Claims
The so-called ‘Function Health Claims’ (or Article 13 claims).
Relating to the growth, development and functions of the body;
Referring to psychological and behavioural functions;
On slimming or weight-control.
The so-called ‘Risk Reduction Claims’ (or Article 14(1)(a) claims) on reducing a risk factor in the development of a disease.
For example: “Plant stanol esters have been shown to reduce blood cholesterol. Blood cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease”
Health ‘Claims referring to children’s development’ (Article 14(1)(b) claims).
For example: “Vitamin D is needed for the normal growth and development of bone in children”